Insect pests spread diseases. Mosquitoes, for example, are responsible for the spread of malaria, which affected 247 million people in 2021 alone and caused over 600 000 deaths. Parasitic insect pests, such as parasitic flies, can threaten whole ecosystems, putting at risk long-term conservation of animals and biodiversity. Other insect pests, such as fruit flies, moths, tsetse flies and screwworms destroy crops and livestock, threatening farmers’ livelihoods, harming international trade and undermining global food security. According to official estimates, pests destroyed up to 40 per cent of global crops and caused $220 billion in losses in 2021.

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