The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environment-friendly method of insect control that relies on the release of large numbers of sterile insects. Mating released sterile males with wild females leads to a decrease in the reproductive potential and to the local suppression of the target population. There is increased interest in applying this approach to manage disease-transmitting mosquito populations. The main focus of this pilot trial was to assess the efficacy of the SIT for the suppression of Aedes aegypti populations. Two areas in Havana city, Cuba, were selected as control and release trial sites. The presence, density and fertility of the target wild population were monitored through a network of ovitraps. Approximately 1,270,000 irradiated Ae. aegypti males were released in the 50 ha target area over a period of 20 weeks.